This course is a one-semester course with two scheduled hours of lecture and two scheduled hours of laboratory exercises per week. This course is designed to build on material covered in BIOL 1131 as well as to introduce students to the fundamental techniques and protocols of cell culture, light and phase-contrast microscopy, cell signalling and communication and basic immunology theory. Students will be introduced to basic cell culture theory and techniques including passaging and counting of adherent and non-adherent eukaryotic cells. Aseptic handling of cultures and solutions will be stressed. Students will also become proficient in using inverted phase-contrast microscopes to observe living cells and to monitor them for contamination.